its been a few days since I've been on...I actually just got the dbt workbook...also got a few other books too so I hadn't spent a lot of time with the workbook. I'm going to give it to him today. He recently tried to overdose so he actually called the T himself...progress. only problem is the T doesnt accept his new insurance but told him he may be able to get "out of plan coverage"...fingers are crossed because he really needs this, he is actually scared himself now. Guess I'll start with the workbook and of course the validating (thanks for the specific examples). Thank you all for your help, it is greatly appreciated!